This essay focuses on deeds to the properties.Such that residents seeking services must use a motor vehicle or other transportation.
I need describe the results and discussions with reference articles (recent is preferable). Here CA means Commercial areas, SPA means Spontaneous Residential areas, PRA means Planned residential areas, UGA means Urban Green areas.
Such that residents seeking services must use a motor vehicle or other transportation. So the need for transportation has resulte in land transport infrastructure such as rail and road.
Development patterns may be regulate by restrictive covenants contain in the deeds to the properties. The development and may also result from or be reinforce by zoning. Restrictive covenants are not easily change when the agreement of all property owners is require. The area so restricte may be large or small.
In previous centuries, residential development was mainly of two kinds. Rich people bought a townlot, hired an architect and/or contractor. And built a bespoke / customize house or mansion for their family. Poor urban people lived in shantytowns or in tenements built for rental.
Single-family houses were seldom built on speculation, that is for future sale to residents not yet identify. When cities and the middle class expand greatly and mortgage loans became commonplace. A method that had been rare became commonplace to serve the expanding demand for home ownership.
Post–World War II economic expansion in major cities of the United States, especially. New York City and Los Angeles produced a demand for thousands of new homes. Which was largely met by speculative building.
Its large-scale practitioners dislike the term “property speculator” and coin the new name “residential development” for their activity. Entire farms and ranches were subdivide and develope, often with one individual or company controlling all aspects of entitlement (permits). Land development (streets and grading), infrastructure (utilities and sewage disposal), and housing. Communities like Levittown, Long Island or Lakewood south of Los Angeles saw new homes sold at unprecedent.
Many techniques which had made the automobile affordable made housing affordable. Standardization of design and small, repetitive assembly tasks, advertising, and a smooth flow of capital. Mass production resulted in a similar uniformity of product, and a more comfortable lifestyle than cramp apartments in the cities. With the advent of government-back mortgages, it could actually be cheaper to own a house in a new residential development than to rent.