This essay focuses on LAB 23: MUTATION LAB Goals 1. DNA can be characterized as the body’s “directions” for all life processes and functions. DNA directs body processes.
Understand what a mutation is and h o w it can affect an organism 2. Learn ways in which the structure of a DNA molecule may be altered by a mutation 3. Demonstrate possible changes to a DNA structure that cause a mutation 4. Predict what impact a mutation m a y have on an organism Materials and Equipment Pencil Materials Not Included DNA strands made in Lab 22 Gum drops or jelly beans Paper Introduction When driving from one place to another, exact directions are essential for reaching the destination. DNA can be characterized as the body’s “directions” for all life processes and functions. DNA directs body processes by determining the production of proteins in the cells. Proteins influence all cell functions, and without them the most basic life functions could not o c c u r
In rare cases, however, this type of mutation may cause a failure to produce a protein or the production of such a different protein that the organism could end up with a severe genetic disease, or even death Procedure Part 1: thefatma n wastoobigfortheredcar b ut the c atwasnot 1. Notice the string of letters above. Imagine that each group of 3 letters represents a codon.
Break the string of letters into groups of three and write it in Question 1 of the Questions section. 2. A slight change can make a difference. In the original sequence of letters before Procedure 1, substitute the letter “h” for the second letter “c” that is underlined. Break the string of letters into groups of three and write the resulting sentence in Question 3 of the Questions section. 3. A few more changes can make a more evident difference. From the original sequence of letters, substitute the letter
“b” that is underline. Break the string of altered letters into groups of three and write the resulting sentence in Question 6 of the Questions section. 4. A more serious mutation results when a nucleotide is add or remove. Remove the first letter from the original string of letters. Split this new sequence of letters into three letter groups and write the resulting sentence in Question 9 of the Questions section. 5. Answer Questions 11 and 12 in the Questions section. Part 2: 1.This will form a different nitrogen base sequence than you originally had. 7. Repeat Procedures 4 and 5, recording the Amino acid SLC single letter code DNA codon Isoleucine I ATT, ATC, ATA Leucin 2012 Quality Science Labs, LLC 117 Copyright © 2012 Quality Science Labs, LLC 2.
the “sugars” and “phosphates” (red and black licorice). Also, remove a nitrogen base from the right side of each rung. Put these pieces aside. 3. Make reference to Lab 22 to find what color gumdrop represented which nitrogen base. Record the sequence of the nitrogen bases along the remaining left side of the DNA model in the data table in Part 2 of the Questions portion of the Lab under “Sequence of Nine Nitrogen Bases.” After each base name, put its first letter (e.g.: Thymine-“T”). 4. Group the nine nitrogen bases in sets of threes to form three codons, a three- Table 1 nitrogen base code for an amino acid. Write the three codons on the chart under “Original Codon Pattern” (e.g.: “CTG”–Cytocine-Thymine-Guanine).