This essay focuses on standard English spelling:• the advantage of IPA is that it gives a standardized pronunciation across languages. • Unfortunately,
knight • origin: Old English • IPA: [naɪt] • the advantage of IPA is that it gives a standardized pronunciation across languages. • Unfortunately, there are some differences in IPA use between linguists and textbooks. We expect you to use the IPA conventions presented in our course textbook. Chart of International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) • The advantage of English spelling is that it remains fairly standard across varieties of English. It also stays fairly standard across language change. • In contrast, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) aims to accurately represent the pronunciation of every
sound in human language. International Phonetic Alphabet • This allows for sound/symbol correspondence across languages and language varieties—1 sound equals 1 symbol • See consonant chart in textbook page 36 Some IPA symbols for English consonants different from letters: • th (then) (voiced) ð • th (thin) (unvoiced) θ • sh (push) ʃ • “zh” (rouge, measure) ʒ • ch (chin) tʃ • j (judge) dʒ • ng (sing) ŋ • r (run) ɹ • y (yes) j IPA of newspaper headlines 10/7/20 • “Unsafe to drink: Fires threaten rural towns with tainted water” • [ʌnsef tu dɹɪŋk: faɪɹz θɹɛtn̩ ɹɹ̩ɹl̩ taʊnz wɪθ tentəd waɾɹ ̩] & how about? • [kændədets skweɹ af an zum] • [
ægi əlʌmnəs ʃeɹz nobɛl pɹaɪz ɪn mɛdəsən] • [sɪɾi ʌv devəs siz ʌptɪk ɪn kəɹonəvaɪɹəs kesəz] The speech organs, textbook p. 27 Consonants Voicing of consonants: • Voiced consonants=your vocal cords vibrate when you say them: g, b, d, v, l, r, m, n…. • Voiceless/unvoiced consonants=your vocal cords do NOT vibrate when you say them: k, p, t, f…. • You can tell if a consonant is voiced or voiceless by saying the sound with your hand on your throat—if you feel a vibration, the sound is voiced.