.This essay focuses on taxonomy of parenting styles. increased family cohesion, perceived parental warmth and acceptance, and better academic
would likely have training as a core component. The underlying cultural foundation of different parenting styles can be seen in that some parenting styles appear to produce different outcomes across cultures. For example, in contrast to the findings from various Western countries, strong parental control has been find to be associate with increase family cohesion, perceive parental warmth and acceptance, and better academic achievement in China, Japan, and Korea (Leung et al., 1998; Nomura, Noguchi, Saito, & Tezuka, 1995; Rohner & Pettengill, 1985; Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Brown, 1992; Trommsdorff & Iwawaki, 1989). One study found that whereas EuropeanAmerican high school. The students viewed any pressure by their mother to be largely negative, and indicative. This is that they didn’t feel supported by their mother.
EXPERIENCES DIFFER ACROSS CULTURE S? 183 Asian-American high school students didn’t view maternal pressure in negative terms. Indeed, when Asian-American students reflected on their mother pressuring them to work hard on a task they were more motivated to complete a task on their own (Fu & Markus, 2014). As one researcher studying Japanese parenting noted, “Japanese adolescents even feel reject by their parents. This when they experience only little parental control and a broader range of autonomy” (Trommsdorff, 1985). Strict and controlling parenting thus appears to have better outcomes in some cultures than others. On the other hand, authoritarian parenting styles have been find to be associate with more-stress mothers (Su & Hynie, 2011) and to lead to increase psychological maladjustment among
children across a variety of both Western and non-Western cultures, including Chinese (Qin, Pomerantz, & Wang, 2009; Sorkhabi, 2005). In general, children are less happy with strongly controlling parents, and this effect is found across many cultures (but see Rudy & Grusec, 2006, for an exception). In contrast, interactions between children and their mothers in many other cultures are quite different. For example, recently there has been much interest in the parenting styles of French mothers (e.g., Druckerman, 2012; Le Billon, 2012), because to North Americans, French children come across as very well-behave and seem to have far fewer dietary issues and weight problems (e.g., Musher-Eizenman, de Lauzon-Guillain, Holub, Lepore, & Charles, 2009). French parents seem much less likely to follow the child’s lead, and instead offer more clear-cut rules that need